Along with the construction of the new wind tunnel, the measurement infrastructure also has to be improved. We are planning to acquire devices with a wide range of applicability (not just for a single research project), ensuring their long-term utilization and professional payback.
1. Probe moving traverse
The most important measurement equipment of the boundary layer wind tunnel is the traverse system, which is capable of moving various probes, sensors and cameras in the three-dimensional space. The system consists of stepper motors, stepper motor controllers, linear guide rails and linear ball screw units. The project proposal OTKA K108936 (”Flow and dispersion phenomena in urban environment”) of the Department of Fluid Mechanics provided the resources to acquire several components of this system (14 m of linear guide rails and accessories which are needed to set it up in the new wind tunnel). The new traverse system follows the design of the great Göttingen-type wind tunnel’s traverse system, which was completed in 2012 and won second place at the National Instruments Hungary 2010-2011 project proposal.
The traverse system of the great Göttingen-type wind tunnel
The traverse system of the great Göttingen-type wind tunnel
Movement range (L x W x H): approx. 14 m x 2.6 m x 1 m
Linear guide rail types: Bosch / Isel
Positioning accuracy: 0.5 x 0.2 x 0.2 mm
Movement controller: National Instruments PXI/PCI 7344/7354
2. Multi-channel simultaneous pressure measurement system
One way to determine the wind load on a building is to determine the surface integral of the pressure measurement points located on the building walls. About 200-600 measurement points are necessary for complex building geometries. The traditional measurement systems used pressure switching units, which connected the measurement points with the pressure transducer one by one, which yielded the mean and extreme pressure values at the points. This method is very time-consuming and does not provide a simultaneous, momentary pressure distribution.
The new system is based on the simultaneous measurement of miniature pressure sensors with favorable price (40-50 EUR/piece), with the help of multi-channel A/D converters. The PXI-format A/D converters will be a part of the laboratory’s existing PXI framework, and could be used to design systems with 500-600 channels. A pilot system with a smaller channel count will be used for testing before the full system is constructed.
Miniature pressure sensor
PXI measurement system
The pressure distribution on the surface of a membrane roof, interpolated from a measurement performed with a multi-channel measurement system
Planned channel count: 496-576
Sensor type: Sensortechnics HCLA, Honeywell Trustability
Sensor characteristics: amplified analog output, temperature compensation
Sensor measurement range: +/- 500 Pa … +/- 800 Pa
Combined measurement uncertainty of the sensor: <0.5% FS
Data acquisition card: National Instruments PXIe-6375, 208 Analog Inputs
3. Force and torque measurement system
The wind load on the buildings can also be determined by measuring the forces directly. This can be carried out by mounting the building on a multi-component force measurement platform. For example, the forces and moments acting at the foundation of a tall building can be determined. As the time function of the forces and moments is also important, the natural frequency of the system has to be much higher than the expected frequencies. The resources of this project proposal would be used to acquire load cells and transducers.
Number of components: 6
Measurement uncertainty of cells: <0.2% FS
Cell measurement range: 50-100 N
Cell output voltage: max. +/- 10V
Natural frequency of cells: >1000 Hz
4. Vibration measurement using a 3D digital image correlation system (DIC)
The new laboratory will be suitable for aeroelasticity measurements, which means that it will be possible to observe the interaction between the wind forces and the vibrations of buildings/structures. An earlier measurement of an aeroelastic bridge model flutter can be seen below, which was carried out in the great Göttingen-type wind tunnel (the investigation was performed by Professor Dr. Tamás Lajos and Dr. Gergely Szabó).
Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system components: lighting, cameras, controller, software (Photo: Lavision GmbH)
During the investigation of aeroelastic models, if the degrees of freedom of the system well exceed the number of accelerometers in the vibration measurement system, then the exact determination of the motion is performed by the 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. This system uses stereoscopic camera orientation to determine the spatial displacement of the reference points. If the model is painted appropriately, the number of reference points can be several million. The size of the investigated domain can be adjusted in a wide range by changing the objective, making the system viable not only for wind tunnel vibration measurements, but also for failure investigation of membrane structure materials, for example. The temporal resolution of the system is determined by the speed of the cameras. For aeroelastic wind tunnel investigations this has to be over 100 Hz.
5. Pitot-Static tubes , pressure transducers, measuring amplifiers
Multiple large-sized Pitot-Static tubes and pressure transducers are necessary to measure the reference wind speed set in the new wind tunnel.
Number of Pitot-Static tubes: 3
Length of Pitot-Static tubes: min. 1 m
Number of pressure transducers: 3-6
Measurement range of pressure transducers: 0-5 mbar, +/-5 mbar, +/-1″WC
Output voltage: 0-5 V or 1-5 V
Measurement uncertainty: max 0.15% FS
6. Multi-hole probe
The most suitable way to measure the time-dependence of all three velocity components in the wind tunnel atmospheric boundary layer is by using a multi-hole (4, 5, 7-hole) probe and a corresponding measurement software. The measurement principle and a practical example can be seen on the images below.
Measurement principle of the multi-hole probe
The four-hole probe of Turbulent Flow Instrumentation (TFI) (Photo: Turbulent Flow Instrumentation Pty Ltd)
Min. measurement frequency: 500 Hz
Max. probe head diameter: 5 mm
Other specifications: Measurement system and software should be able to connect to the existing National Instruments analog data acquisition card
7. High performance lasers for LDA applications
Solid-state laser source for LDA applications (Photo: TSI Inc.)
In the new wind tunnel, Laser-Doppler Anemometry (LDA) will be used to measure wind velocity around buildings, structures and in recirculation zones with great spacial and temporal resolution. The multi-hole probe cannot be used in these locations. The available 300 mW laser source in the laboratory is not enough for measurements with a focal length greater than 500 mm, thus there is a need for stronger laser sources. In order to limit the energy usage and avoid the complicated water cooling of the lasers, we are planning to acquire solid-state laser sources instead of gas lasers. Below the wind tunnel measurement of a model of József Nádor Square in Budapest can be seen with LDA, together with the results.
1:350 scale model of the Budapest József Nádor Square inside the Göttingen-type wind tunnel
Location of the LDA measurements points for the József Nádor Square model measurement
LDA measurement on the 1:350 scale József Nádor Square model
The velocity field and local wind roses based on LDA measurements (wind blows from the north)
Number of laser sources: 2
Wavelength: 2 different wavelengths, between 457 – 532 nm
Power of each unit: >500 mW
– solid-state laser,
– the laser beam has to be shifted by 40 MHz,
– the connection has to be compatible with the optical couplers of the TSI 2D LDV system.